Born in Troyes, Mignard studied painting with a local master. In 1632 he travelled to Avignon, before continuing on to Italy. He returned to Avignon in 1636 and built a career painting religious works. In his later years, Mignard moved to Paris where he established himself as a successful portraitist. He was, however, overshadowed by the success of his younger brother Pierre who found favour with King Louis XIV.