Francesco di Giorgio was an outstanding architect and military engineer, a gifted painter and sculptor, and a notable theorist, writer and diplomat. He was originally from Siena, but was active throughout Italy, working in Urbino, Gubbio, Milan, Naples and Florence. He built palaces and churches but was particularly renowned for designing fortifications. His writings on construction were among the first of importance to emerge from Western Europe and influenced Leonardo. He probably took up medal-making after his move to the court of Urbino around 1476.