Die Hölle (Hell): Das Martyrium (Martyrdom)
© DACS 2004

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Die Hölle (Hell): Das Martyrium (Martyrdom) 1919
Beckmann was influenced by Christian iconography in this scene. It is similar to depictions of the Crucifixion and also of the Deposition from the Cross. The soldiers who poke the woman with their rifles are reminiscent of the soldiers who mocked Christ. The central female figure is widely agreed to be the revolutionary leader Rosa Luxemburg, who was murdered by government troops in January 1919 for her leading role in the Revolution.

Glossary Open


The study of the content of a work of art rather than its formal qualities. It also refers to the symbols associated with a person or movement.

November Revolution, 1918 (Germany)

A series of events in Germany at the end of First World War that led to the abdication of the Kaiser and the establishment of a republic. It was a relatively bloodless revolution, motivated in part by a desire for peace.

Iconography, November Revolution, 1918 (Germany)


  • Acc. No. GMA 2465 D
  • Medium Lithograph
  • Size 87.00 x 61.00 cm
  • Credit Purchased 1981