Prince Charles Edward Stuart was the son of the 'Old Pretender', Prince James Francis Edward, and the grandson of King James VII and II, who was overthrown in 1688. Popularly known as 'Bonnie Prince Charlie', he embodied the hopes of the exiled Jacobite dynasty. After the defeat of his army by government forces at Culloden in 1746, he escaped to France and remained in exile for the remainder of his life. In this portrait the young prince is wearing the order of the Garter and the Jacobite blue bonnet with a white cockade. The latter represents the white rose, a symbol for Jacobite sympathies, and was worn by the prince’s troops in the absence of a formal uniform.