Borthwick Castle was built in 1430 by Sir William Borthwick. Today it is one of the best preserved medieval castles in Scotland. It was built as a double tower, with walls twenty-feet thick at the base to protect it from attack. Even after Oliver Cromwell’s bombardment by cannon in 1650, the castle has remained relatively undamaged. However, by the time this photograph was taken in the mid-nineteenth century, the outer wall and defensive towers, visible in the foreground, are ruins. Later in the nineteenth century the castle was restored.