From the early 1920s August Sander was involved with the group of artists today known as the Cologne Progressives. Most of the painters and sculptors that he photographed for his documentary project ‘People of the 20th Century’ were members and affiliates of the group, like the abstract painter and sculptor Otto Freundlich (1878–1943) depicted here. Freundlich lived in Paris, Berlin and Cologne and was involved in various avant-garde movements and magazines of the 1920s and early 1930s. The National Socialists included Freundlich’s work in the infamous ‘Degenerate Art’ exhibition of 1937 in Munich, using one of his monumental primitivist sculptural heads as the cover image for the exhibition catalogue. Of Jewish origin, Freundlich was deported from France and killed in the Lublin-Majdanek camp in 1943. Sander included this photograph in the portfolio ‘The Sculptor’ from the group ‘The Artists’.