The second son of James Francis Edward Stuart, Prince Henry was the younger brother of Prince Charles Edward Stuart. James commissioned Liotard to produce pastel portraits of both his sons. This is a copy in oil of Liotard’s image and, although the identity of the artist is unknown, it was probably produced shortly after the original pastel. Paired portraits of the princes were very popular. They emphasised that there was not one Stuart heir, but two, and the boys’ similar good looks when young only enhanced the pleasing effect. As a child, Henry hero-worshipped Charles. When he was refused permission to accompany his brother on a mission to witness the Siege of Gaeta in 1734, Henry threw a tantrum. Like Charles, he loved hunting and dancing and was a competent musician. As an adolescent Henry became deeply religious. In 1747 he was appointed Cardinal York and ordained as a priest in 1748.