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Prince Henry Benedict Clement Stuart, 1725 - 1807. Cardinal York; younger brother of Prince Charles Edward

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Prince Henry Benedict Clement Stuart, 1725 - 1807. Cardinal York; younger brother of Prince Charles Edward 1732


  • Scottish Art
The second son of James Francis Edward Stuart (the Old Pretender) was too young to accompany his brother to Scotland in 1745. Henry was appointed Cardinal York in 1747 and ordained as a priest in 1748. This angered Charles greatly, as he felt such a close association with the Roman Catholic Church could only hinder any hopes of restoring the dynasty to the British throne. On Charles's death in 1788, Henry styled himself King Henry IX, but it was an empty title. He lost much of his money during the French Revolution and his palace was sacked by the occupying army. The British government organised his escape to Venice and George III sent him money.

Glossary Open

1745 Rising

An attempt by followers of Prince Charles Edward Stuart (or 'Bonnie Prince Charlie') to reclaim the British throne for the Stuart dynasty. The Prince landed in the Outer Hebrides from France in July 1745. With the support of many Highland chiefs he gathered an army and marched south. The rebels had significant victories against the Hanoverian troops and reached as far as Derby. There they turned back, unsure of their ability to take London, and were pursued by government forces. The final battle was held at Culloden in 1746 where Bonnie Prince Charlie was decisively beaten and hopes of a Jacobite restoration were dashed.

French Revolution

A series of events that took place in 1791 leading to the end of the 'ancien régime', a complex political and social structure ruled over by an absolute monarch. Prompted by economic crisis and widespread food shortages, the Revolution resulted in the abolition of feudal rights and privileges, the reorganisation of the church, and a constitution that limited the powers of the monarch. These reforms provide the basis for the modern French state.

1745 Rising, French Revolution


  • Acc. No. PG 888
  • Medium Oil on canvas
  • Size 73.40 x 60.60 cm (framed: 90.00 x 78.00 x 7.00 cm)
  • Credit Purchased 1918