A technique in which paper or canvas is placed over a grainy surface and rubbed with a crayon or charcoal. This was often used by Surrealist artists to create chance effects. From the French word ‘frotter’, meaning ‘to rub’.

Max Ernst Elle garde son secret [She Keeps Her Secret] 1925 © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2018


Max Ernst
1891 - 1976
Sir Roland Penrose
1900 - 1984
Joseph Beuys
1921 - 1986