For a short time, visitors to the Scottish National Portrait Gallery have the chance to see one of our most spectacular recent acquisitions: Antonio Zucchi’s sumptuous portrait of James Adam.
Bought jointly with the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, and with additional support from the Art Fund, the picture will soon be on its way to the V&A’s impressive Neoclassicism galleries, where it will be on display for a year. But until October, it will be hanging in Gallery 6, alongside some of our other best-loved eighteenth century portraits, as part of our Scots in Italy: Artists and Adventurers exhibition.
The picture is well worth a careful look, because it is crammed with fascinating details that tell us a great deal about James Adam and the world he lived and worked in. In this blog I’m going to introduce the painting and explore the symbolism of some of these details.
First some background. James Adam (1732-1794) was a member of the most celebrated Scottish architectural dynasty of the eighteenth century.
Its founder was his father, William Adam (1689-1748), who was a leading mason, architect and entrepreneur.
He designed and built some of the most celebrated country houses of his time, including Hopetoun House near Edinburgh and our Partner Gallery Duff House in Banff.
However, it was the next generation, and especially James and his elder brother Robert, who took the family’s fame beyond Scotland when they set up their office in London.
Together they pioneered a new, more elegant, ‘Neoclassical’ approach to architecture, with such success that it became known as the ‘Adam style’.
So let’s turn our attention to the portrait itself. Its inscription tells us that it was painted in Rome in 1763. At this moment, James was near to completing the extended 3-year tour of Italy he had begun in May 1760.
This was partly an extended period of professional training: eighteenth-century architects modelled their work on ancient Roman buildings, and Rome was the best place to see their remains. Italy was also full of studios where an aspiring architect could receive training in architectural drawing and design. But James’s trip was also something of a publicity exercise.
He travelled in high style with a large group of servants and hangers-on, all in the hope that he would be recognised as the most brilliant, handsome, wealthy and fashionable young architect of his time.
Zucchi’s portrait is very much part of this strategy. In fact, in terms of its wealth of detail and rich colouring, the painting is by far the most sophisticated portrait of any member of the Adam family.
It is also probably the most ambitious surviving portrait of any professional British Grand Tourist.
This comes out in every aspect of the painting. James cuts a particularly dramatic and elegant figure on the canvas. Presented as the archetypal Grand Tourist, he wears a lavish blue silk gown with fur-trim and gold embroidered waistcoat. The pair of dividers and scroll of paper he holds are the symbols of his profession and suggest that he is in the midst of study or work.
No less striking is the mass of highly ornamented objects that surround him, all intended to testify to his knowledge and appreciation of Ancient Roman art and architecture.
First we have the Medici Vase, a monumental marble krater (bell-shaped jar or vase) that was sculpted – effectively as a garden ornament – in Athens in the second half of the 1st Century AD. You can see this immediately behind James. It was then on display in the garden of the Villa Medici in Rome and was regarded as the acme of taste and sophistication.
And then there’s a reversed (or variant) version of the Giustiniani Minerva (the goddess of wisdom) in the niche to his right. This was coming to be regarded as the epitome of the purest style of classical sculpture, so James is signalling that he is at the forefront of taste and fashion.
Above the Minerva we see a bas relief sculpture of Bacchus and Ariadne, taken from a celebrated ancient Roman intaglio (engraved) gemstone.
We can also see panels of grotesque ornament, characterised by its extravagant, fantastical forms, framing Minerva’s niche. James was particularly proud of his collection of panels like this, and he and Robert became particularly famous for designs of this kind.
The key to understanding the image, however, is the elaborate bronzed capital that we see in the foreground. While in Rome, James sank his energies into a project to rebuild the Houses of Parliament in London. Keen to show his accomplishment as a designer of ornament, he put much effort into producing a set of stupendously detailed plans with many elaborate symbolic features. As part of this, he invented a whole new ‘British’ architectural order of columns. Instead of the leafy ornaments used on original Roman designs, he substituted the Scottish Unicorn and British Lion. In doing so, James showed that he hoped to establish his reputation across Britain, while still proudly asserting his Scottish identity.
Whilst we will be sad to see Zucchi’s portrait go from the Gallery, it’s good to know that James’s plans for fame beyond Scotland are still working – the painting is sure to make just as striking an impression in London as it has done in Edinburgh.
The painting will remain on display at the V&A for a year before returning to be shown in Edinburgh in early 2021. Thereafter, it will be shown at each institution for a period of seven years, on rotation.