Andrew Robertson was born in Aberdeen. He studied as a scene painter and miniaturist, working under Alexander Nasmyth and Sir Henry Raeburn. Robertson's two elder brothers were also miniaturists. After attending the Royal Academy Schools in London in 1797, Robertson decided to establish his own practice as a miniature painter in the city. During a career lasting over forty years, Robertson exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy and painted members of the Royal family. He was appointed miniature painter to the Duke of Sussex in 1805.