Reformation to Revolution

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At the beginning of the sixteenth century Scotland was a Catholic state governed by the Stewart dynasty (who later spelled their name Stuart).  By the close of the seventeenth century the monarchy, church and parliament had all changed drastically.

After 1603 the Stuarts, now based in London, were absentee rulers, and the nature of kingship was itself increasingly contested.  The huge upheavals of the Reformation saw Protestantism become the nation’s official religion.  The collapse of the old church and the dispersal of its lands and wealth brought about a major shift of power and income: new landed classes vied with established noble families for status and influence.

These complex changes had important cultural consequences.  With religious painting no longer acceptable, there was an increase in demand for secular art forms, portraiture in particular.  This coincided with a growing merchant and professional class beginning to commission works of art to display their increased ambition and economic strength.

Painted portraits were expensive, and those who acquired them came from the wealthiest levels of society, both old and new.  These men and women used portraits to assert ideas of social status as well as to record an individual likeness.  Their images played a significant role in the struggles for power, identity and nationhood during this period.

Queen Anne: A Portrait in Detail

 

[Duration 3:53]

 

 

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Second floor

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Portrait Second floor

Gallery

George, 5th Lord Seton (about 1531 - 1585), aged 27 Adrian Vanson

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Mary, Queen of Scots, 1542 - 1587. Reigned 1542 - 1567 Unknown

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William Drummond of Hawthornden, 1585 - 1649. Poet Abraham van Blijenberch

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Anne Hyde, Duchess of York, 1637 - 1671. First wife of James VII and II Sir Peter Lely

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Charles II, 1630 - 1685. King of Scots 1649 - 1685. King of England and Ireland 1660 - 1685 (When Prince of Wales, with a page) William Dobson

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Archibald Campbell [MacCailein Mòr Gilleasbaig Fiar-shùileach], 1st Marquess of Argyll, 1598 - 1661. Statesman David Scougall

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Lady Agnes Douglas, Countess of Argyll, about 1574 - 1607. Wife of the 7th Earl of Argyll Adrian Vanson

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Robert Kerr, 1st Marquess of Lothian, 1636 - 1703. Statesman Simon Verelst

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Mary of Guise, 1515 - 1560. Queen of James V Corneille de Lyon

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James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, about 1516 - 1581. Regent of Scotland Arnold Bronckorst

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Mary, Queen of Scots, 1542 - 1587. Reigned 1542 - 1567 (In white mourning) Francois Clouet, Unknown

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John Maitland, 2nd Earl and 1st Duke of Lauderdale, 1616 - 1682. Statesman Sir Peter Lely

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General Thomas Dalyell, c 1599 - 1685. Soldier in Russia and Commander-in-Chief in Scotland L. Schuneman

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Alexander Henderson, c 1583 - 1646. Presbyterian divine and diplomatist Sir Anthony van Dyck

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Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, 1545 - 1567. Consort of Mary, Queen of Scots Hans Eworth

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George Buchanan [Seòras Bochanan], 1506 - 1582. Historian, poet and reformer Arnold Bronckorst

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Susanna Hamilton, Countess of Cassillis, 1632 - 1694. First wife of the 7th Earl of Cassilis John Michael Wright

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James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton, 1606 - 1649. Royalist Daniel Mytens

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Princess Elizabeth, 1635 - 1650 and Princess Anne, 1637 - 1640. Daughters of Charles I Sir Anthony van Dyck

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James V, 1512 - 1542. Father of Mary, Queen of Scots. Reigned 1513 - 1542 Unknown

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James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, c 1535 - 1578. Third husband of Mary Queen of Scots Unknown

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Sir William Bruce, c 1630 - 1710. Architect John Michael Wright

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Queen Anne, when Princess of Denmark, 1665 – 1714 Jan van der Vaardt, Willem Wissing

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James VI and I, 1566 - 1625. King of Scotland 1567 - 1625. King of England and Ireland 1603 - 1625 (As a boy) Arnold Bronckorst

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John Knox, 1505 - 1572. Reformer and historian Unknown, Adrian Vanson

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James VI and I, 1566 - 1625. King of Scotland 1567 - 1625. King of England and Ireland 1603 - 1625 Adrian Vanson

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Charles Seton, 2nd Earl of Dunfermline, 1608 - 1672. Lord Privy Seal Sir Anthony van Dyck

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Sir William Davidson of Curriehill, 1615/16 - 1689. Conservator of the Staple at Veere (with his son Charles) Abraham Lambertsz van den Tempel

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James VII and II, when Duke of York, 1633 – 1701 Sir Peter Lely

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Tom Derry, fl. 1614. Jester to Anne of Denmark Marcus Gheeraerts, the Younger

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Elizabeth Murray, Duchess of Lauderdale, 1626 - 1691 Benedetto Gennari

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Robert Kerr, 1st Earl of Ancram, 1578 - 1654 Jan Lievens

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Esther Inglis, 1571 - 1624. Calligrapher and miniaturist Unknown

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Princess Mary, 1631 - 1660. Eldest daughter of Charles I; Princess of Orange Adriaen Hanneman

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William III, 1650 - 1702. Sir Godfrey Kneller

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Sir James Balfour, 1600 - 1657. Historian and Lord Lyon King-of-Arms Unknown

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