William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, 1721-1765. Youngest son of George II
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William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, 1721-1765. Youngest son of George II About 1758

On Display PORTRAIT GALLERY

William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland was the second surviving son of King George II. He followed a short spell in the navy with a career in the military, serving at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743 where he was wounded below the knee, an injury from which he never recovered. He commanded the army which pursued Prince Charles Edward Stewart during the 1745 Rising and defeated the Jacobite army at the Battle of Culloden 1746. As a result of his ruthless treatment of the rebels he earned the nickname the 'Butcher'. The sash of the Order of the Garter is visible across his chest; the Duke was given this honour in 1730 when he was still a child.

Glossary Open

1745 Rising

An attempt by followers of Prince Charles Edward Stuart (or 'Bonnie Prince Charlie') to reclaim the British throne for the Stuart dynasty. The Prince landed in the Outer Hebrides from France in July 1745. With the support of many Highland chiefs he gathered an army and marched south. The rebels had significant victories against the Hanoverian troops and reached as far as Derby. There they turned back, unsure of their ability to take London, and were pursued by government forces. The final battle was held at Culloden in 1746 where Bonnie Prince Charlie was decisively beaten and hopes of a Jacobite restoration were dashed.

Battle of Culloden

A battle fought on Culloden Moor near Inverness in 1746 between supporters of the exiled House of Stuart - led by the Young Pretender, Prince Charles Edward Stuart - and government troops led by the Duke of Cumberland. The government victory effectively brought the 1745 Jacobite Rebellion to an end and resulted in a repression of Highland culture as punishment.

Battle of Dettingen

Fought in 1743 during the war of the Austrian Succession or King George's War, this was the last time that a British monarch - George II - personally led his troops into battle. The British forces, in alliance with those of Hanover and Austria (the "Pragmatic Army"), defeated the French.

Jacobite

Jacobitism was a movement to restore the descendants of the Stuart King James VII and II to the British throne. The first claimant, Prince James Francis Edward (known as 'the Old Pretender') was exiled first in France, then Italy, from where he planned unsuccessful attempts to claim the throne. His son Prince Charles Edward (known as 'Bonnie Prince Charlie' or 'the Young Pretender') famously invaded Britain in 1745, but after some military successes was finally defeated at Culloden in 1746.

Order of the Garter

The most senior British Order of Chivalry, founded by Edward III in 1348. It now consists of 24 knights along with royal knights and some foreign monarchs. The badge of the order comprises the St George's Cross within a blue garter (the original emblem of the order), surrounded by radiating silver beams.

1745 Rising, Battle of Culloden, Battle of Dettingen, Jacobite, Order of the Garter

Details

  • Acc. No. PG 910
  • Medium Oil on canvas
  • Size 76.20 x 63.50 cm
  • Credit Purchased 1920