This bust was acquired from the Count of Paris, a direct descendant of the sitter. Philippe, Duke of Orléans, was grand patron of Lemoyne, and a great collector of Old Master Paintings. The gems of his collection subsequently made their way into the collection of the Dukes of Sutherland, who have generously lent them to the Scottish National Gallery since 1945/6. An inscription on the bust states that Philippe was forty-five years old and Regent of France when it was made. Lemoyne had worked for both Kings Louis XIV and XV of France, so it was appropriate that he should also create a bust of Philippe during his regency. He is shown wearing a flamboyant wig (peruke) and chest armour.