Frederick became count palatine of the Rhine and elector of the Holy Roman empire in 1610. In 1613 he married Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James VI and I, king of Scotland, England and Ireland. Frederick was a key figure in German politics but things changed dramatically when, in November 1619, he was crowned king of Bohemia. However, his reign ended in early 1620 following his defeat by Catholic forces at the battle of the White Mountain. His short reign led to his nickname the Winter King. The battle marked the beginning of the Thirty Years War and Frederick lived the rest of his life in exile. This engraving by Hondius is probably after a portrait by Anthony Van Dyck.